Congenital heart disease

A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth. Signs and symptoms depend on the specific type of problem. Symptoms can vary from none to life-threatening.

As a treatment

A heart catheterization can be used to fix certain types of heart defects. A few different types of procedures can be used during a catheterization. The type of procedure used depends on the type of defect. These procedures include:


For a septostomy, an opening is made in the wall of the heart between the upper chambers to allow blood to mix between the heart chambers. This procedure is typically used to treat transposition of the great vessels, tricuspid atresia, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. It does not correct the congenital heart defect but allows oxygen-rich blood to get out to the body until surgery can be done to correct the defect.

Closing a defect.

A doctor uses the catheter to insert a small closure device into the heart. This device prevents blood from flowing between chambers. This procedure might be done to treat an atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, or patent ductus arteriosus.

Balloon valvuloplasty.

A doctor uses the catheter to move a tiny balloon to the heart valve. The doctor then inflates the balloon to widen the valve. The balloon separates and stretches the valve opening. This allows blood to flow more easily through the heart. This procedure can be used to treat pulmonary valve stenosis and aortic valve stenosis.

Balloon angioplasty.

A doctor uses the catheter to move a tiny balloon into a blood vessel. The balloon is inflated to widen the vessel. This procedure can be used to treat narrowed blood vessels in the lungs or coarctation of the aorta.


A doctor can use the catheter to place a small, expandable tube (stent) in an artery. The stent keeps the artery open. Stents might be placed in arteries outside the heart, such as the pulmonary arteries or the aorta.


In a child who has a congenital heart defect, a heart catheterization shows how the blood is flowing through the heart. The exact heart problem can be seen and sometimes treated during the same procedure or a later one.

If your child has a complex heart defect, he or she might need a combination of surgery and catheterization to treat it.

Your child will continue to see the doctor to be sure that his or her heart is working right. Many children with a heart defect that was treated live healthy lives with few or no restrictions. Your child will need regular checkups throughout life.

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dr Blessan Varghese

MD (Gen Med), DM (Cardiology) Chief Interventional Cardiologist

Dr Blessan Varghese is a renowned interventional cardiologist with an experience of 10 years with expertise in diagnostic coronary angiography both radial & femoral route, Primary Angioplasty, Complex Angioplasty, cardiac catheterization, renal angiography & Pacemaker Implantation and Device therapy for ASD, PDA, and many more interventional procedures. Currently, he serves as Consultant Interventional Cardiologist at Welcare Hospital, Kochi and is the chief of inerventional cardiology.

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dr john richardson